Past, Present and Future

Past, Present and Future

The Past

  • Trends may be an unreliable guide to the future
  • History shapes our values and assumptions

The Present

  • Current decisions have consequences for future events
  • Noise distracts attention from what's important

The Future

  • Responsibility to foresee future impacts of present decisions 
  • Uncertainty and differing ideas about what is important


The dimension of time:

Diagram based on:
Hawkings, S. (1988), A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books
Donald Rumsfeld quote:

There are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns: that is to say there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don't know we don't know. So when we do the best we can and we pull all this information together, and we then say well that's basically what we see as the situation, that is really only the known knowns and the known unknowns. And each year, we discover a few more of those unknown unknowns.